Drawing on constitutional reform experiences around the world, this new policy brief outlines the challenges revolutionary Tunisia, Egypt and Libya are facing as they embark on drafting new constitutions as a clean break with their authoritarian past.
France’s lead on NATO’s military intervention in Libya marked a turning point in French policies in the MENA. Yet, French President Nicolas Sarkozy’s policies are beset by ethical inconsistencies, the primacy of commercial interests and a desire to restore French leadership in the Mediterranean.
The EU has in many ways reacted well to the Arab spring, but must now gradually move beyond its stance of ‘listening and helping’ and map out a strategic vision for the long-term.
Despite the high levels of internet activism, corruption and economic malaise, so far Iran remained unaffected by the change affecting the Middle East and North Africa. The country’s potential for democratic change may ultimately depend on ongoing regional developments.
The recent upheavals in the Middle East and North Africa highlight the futility and anachronism inherent in the European Union’s highly fragmented foreign policy towards the region.
Tunisians are disappointed with European responses to the revolution so far for a host of reasons, some obvious, other less well-known. Drawing from extensive interviews with key Tunisian actors, this brief examines the reasons for this disappointment.